The most persistent myth surrounding “daddy longlegs” is that they are the world’s most venomous 蜘蛛 and we’re only safe from their bite, 我们被告知, because their fangs are too small and weak to break through human skin.
It turns out that the notion is false on both counts. 但需要澄清一下.
In order to understand this notion, it first must be determined what a 爸爸Longlegs is. According to Wikipedia, 爸爸Longlegs can be referred to as any one of the following:
- Opillones – these are an order of arachnids, more commonly known as Harvestmen
- Pholcidae – an order of 蜘蛛s more commonly known as Cellar 蜘蛛
- 鹤飞 – a member of the family of 昆虫 in the order of Diptera
长腿爸爸只是个昵称, so let’s get scientific
正如我们从上面看到的, 长腿爸爸只是个昵称, and can include any one of the above 昆虫, so to understand if 爸爸Longlegs are indeed dangerous, we should look at each insect separately to determine the answer to this question.
Harvestmen can be found on every contentment in the world, excluding Antarctica. 已经超过6次了,500 different documented species of Harvestmen worldwide, and the true number of different species is thought to exceed 10,000. Harvestmen have been documented as far back as 400 million years through various fossils, which shows their basic body structure has changed very little since then.
In short the answer to this question is no. 这是一个广为流传的寓言, which states a Harvestmen’s fangs are too short, 或者太脆弱而无法刺穿人类的皮肤, and if these fangs were able to pierce the skin, their venom would be among the most dangerous in the world. Of all the different species of Harvestmen researched, not one of them has venom glands. Harvestmen also do not have hollow fangs to transmit venom, instead Harvestmen use their fangs as grasping claws.
Pholcidae, often referred to as Cellar 蜘蛛 as also commonly known as 爸爸Longlegs. 蜘蛛 from this family are fragile, and a range in body size from 2 to 10 mm. Their body can differ in shape depending on the group they belong to. Legs on these 蜘蛛s have been documented up to 50mm in length.
Cellar 蜘蛛 are 蜘蛛s, so yes they are venomous. The real question should be: is the venom toxic enough to affect a human, and what kind of reaction would it produce when compared to other venomous 蜘蛛s?
In 2004, the Discovery Channel’s television series, Myth Busters aired an episode that tested the urban legend of the Cellar 蜘蛛 venom. 在这一集里, Adam Savage stuck his hand in a container of Cellar 蜘蛛, and noted that he felt a bite that produced a short lived burning sensation, 没有别的了. It was also noted during the episode that these 蜘蛛s’ fangs measured approximately 0.25mm in length, while the average human skin thickness ranges between 0.厚度为5至4毫米.
Crane flies resemble an oversized mosquito and are found worldwide. Crane flies are often referred to a Mosquito Hawks, Mosquito Eaters, Gallnipper, and Gollywhoppers. They sometimes are also referred to as 爸爸Longlegs, because of their long legged appearance.
No they’re not, 起重机苍蝇 are an invasive flying insect, not a 蜘蛛. Crane fly larvae live in the top layers of soil where they feed on roots, root hairs, and crops. The larvae can harm the growth of everything from normal lawns, to agricultural crops. Other than agricultural losses and damage to ornamental landscape plants, 鹤蝇对人类没有威胁.
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